long strtol(const char *restrict nptr, char **restrict endptr, int base);
long long strtoll(const char *restrict nptr, char **restrict endptr,
IEEE Std 1003.1-2017
These functions shall convert the initial portion of the string pointed to by nptr to a type
long representation, respectively. First, they decompose the input string into three parts:
An initial, possibly empty, sequence of white-space characters (as specified by
A subject sequence interpreted as an integer represented in some
radixdetermined by the value of base
A final string of one or more unrecognized characters, including the terminating NUL character of the input string.
Then they shall attempt to convert the subject sequence to an integer, and return the result.
If the value of base is
0, the expected form of the subject sequence is that of a decimal constant, octal constant, or
hexadecimal constant, any of which may be preceded by a
- sign. A decimal constant begins with a
non-zero digit, and consists of a sequence of decimal digits. An octal constant consists of the prefix
followed by a sequence of the digits
7 only. A hexadecimal constant consists of the prefix
followed by a sequence of the decimal digits and letters
A ) to
F ) with
If the value of base is between
36, the expected form of the subject sequence is a sequence of letters and digits
representing an integer with the radix specified by base, optionally preceded by a
- sign. The
A ) to
Z ) inclusive are ascribed the values
letters whose ascribed values are less than that of base are permitted. If the value of base is
16, the characters
0X may optionally precede the sequence of letters and digits, following the sign if present.
The subject sequence is defined as the longest initial subsequence of the input string, starting with the first non-white-space
character that is of the expected form. The subject sequence shall contain no characters if the input string is empty or consists
entirely of white-space characters, or if the first non-white-space character is other than a sign or a permissible letter or
If the subject sequence has the expected form and the value of base is
0, the sequence of characters starting with the
first digit shall be interpreted as an integer constant. If the subject sequence has the expected form and the value of base
36, it shall be used as the base for conversion, ascribing to each letter its value as given above. If the subject
sequence begins with a
<hyphen-minus>, the value resulting from the conversion shall be negated. A pointer to the final
string shall be stored in the object pointed to by endptr, provided that endptr is not a
In other than the C or POSIX locale, additional
locale-specific subject sequence forms may be accepted.
If the subject sequence is empty or does not have the expected form, no conversion is performed; the value of nptr shall
be stored in the object pointed to by endptr, provided that endptr is not a
These functions shall not change the setting of errno if successful.
LLONG_MAX are returned on error and are also valid returns on success,
an application wishing to check for error situations should set
0, then call
Upon successful completion, these functions shall return the converted value, if any. If no conversion could be performed,
shall be returned and
errno may be set to
If the value of base is not supported,
0 shall be returned and
errno shall be set to
If the correct value is outside the range of representable values,
LLONG_MAX shall be
returned (according to the sign of the value), and
errno set to
These functions shall fail if:
EINVAL- The value of base is not supported.
ERANGE- The value to be returned is not representable.
These functions may fail if:
EINVAL- No conversion could be performed.